What is Thyroid? Know its Types, Symptoms, Normal Range, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Thyroid Fnac Center In Ghatkopar East

Understanding the Thyroid

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. The thyroid, despite its small size, is a major organ in your general health. It generates the hormones that control the digestive system, or how your body consumes energy. These hormones affect how well you burn calories, your body temperature, and your heart rate, among other essential tasks.

Types of Thyroid Disorders

  1. Hypothyroidism: This condition occurs when the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough hormones. It can lead to symptoms like fatigue, weight gain, and depression.
  2. Hyperthyroidism: In this condition, the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, causing symptoms such as weight loss, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety.
  3. Goiter: An abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur with either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  4. Thyroid Nodules: These are lumps that can form in the thyroid gland. They are usually benign, but sometimes they can be cancerous.
  5. Thyroid Cancer: A relatively rare form of cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. It often presents as a lump or swelling in the neck.

Symptoms of Thyroid Disorders

The symptoms can vary depending on the type of thyroid disorder:

  • Hypothyroidism: Restlessness, weight gain, cold hate speech, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, and depression.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Weight loss, rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, irritability, nervousness, and difficulty sleeping.
  • Goiter: Swelling at the base of the neck, problems with eating or breathing.
  • Thyroid Growths: Often asymptomatic, but can sometimes cause pain or swelling in the neck.
  • Thyroid Cancer: Lump in the neck, difficulties breathing, hoarseness, and swollen lymph systems.

Normal Range of Thyroid Hormones

To assess thyroid function, doctors typically measure levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and sometimes T3 and T4 hormones:

  • TSH: 0.4 to 4.0 mIU/L
  • Free T4: 0.8 to 2.8 ng/dL
  • Free T3: 2.3 to 4.2 pg/mL

These values can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual’s age and sex.

Diagnosis of Thyroid Disorders

  1. Blood Tests: The primary test for diagnosing thyroid disorders is the blood test. It measures the levels of TSH, T3, and T4 in your blood.
  2. Imaging Tests: Ultrasound or radioactive iodine scans can help visualize the thyroid gland and detect nodules or abnormalities.
  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC): This is a biopsy procedure used to extract cells from a thyroid nodule to check for cancer.

Treatment Options

Treatment depends on the type and severity of the thyroid disorder:

  • Hypothyroidism: Typically treated with synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine).
  • Hyperthyroidism: Options include anti-thyroid medications, radioactive iodine therapy, or surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.
  • Goiter: Treatment can include medication, radioactive iodine, or surgery, depending on the cause and size of the goiter.
  • Thyroid Nodules: Benign nodules may require no treatment but regular monitoring. Suspicious or cancerous nodules may require surgery.
  • Thyroid Cancer: Treatment usually involves surgery, radioactive iodine treatment, hormone therapy, radiation, or chemotherapy.


Understanding your thyroid and its function is important for maintaining your overall health. For a correct diagnosis and course of treatment, speak with a medical expert if you show any signs of a thyroid condition.

For those looking for reliable diagnostics and treatment, consider Neptune Diagnostics and Fetal Medicine Center. They offer comprehensive services, including the specialized Thyroid FNAC Center in Ghatkopar East, ensuring you receive accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Remember, early detection and treatment of thyroid disorders can significantly improve your quality of life. Stay informed, stay healthy!